Command-Line Interface

rows exposes a command-line interface with common operations such as converting and querying data.

Note: we still need to improve this documentation. Please run rows --help to see all the available commands, see the code reference or take a look at rows/cli.py. Man pages are also available.

Commands

All the commands accepts any of the formats supported by the library (unless in some specific/optimized cases, like csv2sqlite, sqlite2csv, pgimport and pgexport) and for all input data you can specify an URL instead of a local filename (example: rows convert https://website/file.html file.csv).

Note: you must install the specific dependencies for each format you want support (example: to extract tables from HTML the Python library lxml is required).

  • rows convert: convert a table from one format to another.
  • rows csv2sqlite: convert one or more CSV files (compressed or not) to SQLite in an optimized way (if source is CSV and destination is SQLite, use this rather than rows convert).
  • rows join: equivalent to SQL's JOIN - get rows from each table and join them.
  • rows pdf-to-text: extract text from a PDF file and save into a file or print to standard output;
  • rows pgexport: export a PostgreSQL table into a CSV file (compressed or not) in the most optimized way: using psql's COPY command.
  • rows pgimport: import a CSV file (compressed or not) into a PostgreSQL table in the most optimized way: using psql's COPY command.
  • rows print: print a table to the standard output (you can choose between some frame styles).
  • rows query: query a table using SQL (converts the table to an in-memory SQLite database) and output to the standard output or a file.
  • rows schema: inspects a table and defines its schema. Can output in many formats, like text, SQL or even Django models.
  • rows sqlite2csv: convert a SQLite table into a CSV file (compressed or not).
  • rows sum: aggreate the rows of two equivalent tables (must have same field names and types), equivalent to SQL's UNION.

Note: everytime we specify "compressed or not" means you can use the file as is or a compressed version of it. The supported compression formats are: gzip (.gz), lzma (.xz) and bzip2 (.bz2). Support for archive formats such as zip, tar and rar will be implemented in the future.

Global and Common Parameters

Some parameters are global to the command-line interface and the sub-commands also have specific options. The global options are:

  • --http-cache=BOOLEAN: Enable/disable HTTP cache (default: true)
  • --http-cache-path=TEXT: Set HTTP cache path (default: USER_HOME_PATH/.cache/rows/http

rows convert

Convert a table from a source URI to destination. Useful to convert files between formats, like extracting data from a HTML table and converting to CSV.

Note: if you'd like to convert from/to CSV, SQLite or PostgreSQL, see the more optimized commands csv2sqlite, sqlite2csv, pgimport and pgexport.

Usage: rows convert [OPTIONS] SOURCE DESTINATION

Options:

  • --input-encoding=TEXT: Encoding of input tables (default: utf-8)
  • --output-encoding=TEXT: Encoding of output tables (default: utf-8)
  • --input-locale=TEXT: Locale of input tables. Used to parse integers, floats etc. (default: C)
  • --output-locale=TEXT: Locale of output tables. Used to parse integers, floats etc. (default: C)
  • --verify-ssl=BOOLEAN: Verify SSL certificate, if source is downloaded via HTTPS (default: true)
  • --order-by=TEXT: Order result by this field (default: same order as input data)
  • --fields=TEXT: A comma-separated list of fields to import (default: all fields)
  • --fields-exclude=TEXT: A comma-separated list of fields to exclude when exporting (default: none)

Examples:

# needs: pip install rows[html]
rows convert \
    http://www.sports-reference.com/olympics/countries/BRA/summer/2016/ \
    brazil-2016.csv

rows convert \
    http://www.worldometers.info/world-population/population-by-country/ \
    population.csv

rows csv2sqlite

Convert one or more CSV files (compressed or not) to SQLite in an optimized way (if source is CSV and destination is SQLite, use this rather than rows convert). The supported compression formats are: gzip (.gz), lzma (.xz) and bzip2 (.bz2).

Usage: rows csv2sqlite [OPTIONS] SOURCES... OUTPUT

Options:

  • --batch-size=INTEGER: number of rows to batch insert into SQLite (default: 10000)
  • --samples=INTEGER: number of sample rows to detect schema (default: 5000)
  • --input-encoding=TEXT: input encoding (default: utf-8)
  • --dialect=TEXT: CSV dialect to be used (default: will detect automatically)
  • --schemas=TEXT: comma-separated list of schema files (default: will detect automatically) - these files must have the columns field_name and field_type (you can see and example by running rows schema)

Example:

rows csv2sqlite \
     --dialect=excel \
     --input-encoding=latin1 \
     file1.csv file2.csv \
     result.sqlite

rows join

Join tables from source URIs using key(s) to group rows and save into destination. This command is not optimized and its use is discouraged (rows query may be more effective).

Usage: rows join [OPTIONS] KEYS SOURCES... DESTINATION

Options:

  • --input-encoding=TEXT: Encoding of input tables (default: utf-8)
  • --output-encoding=TEXT: Encoding of output tables (default: utf-8)
  • --input-locale=TEXT: Locale of input tables. Used to parse integers, floats etc. (default: C)
  • --output-locale=TEXT: Locale of output tables. Used to parse integers, floats etc. (default: C)
  • --verify-ssl=BOOLEAN: Verify SSL certificate, if source is downloaded via HTTPS (default: true)
  • --order-by=TEXT: Order result by this field (default: same order as input data)
  • --fields=TEXT: A comma-separated list of fields to import (default: all fields)
  • --fields-exclude=TEXT: A comma-separated list of fields to exclude when exporting (default: none)

Example: join a.csv and b.csv into a new file called c.csv using the field id as a key (both a.csv and b.csv must have the field id):

rows join id a.csv b.csv c.csv

rows pdf-to-text

Extract text from a PDF file and save into a file or print to standard output.

Usage: rows pdf-to-text [OPTIONS] SOURCE [OUTPUT]

Options:

  • --output-encoding=TEXT: encoding to be used on output file (default: utf-8) - valid only when output is specified (if not, uses the default standard output's encoding)
  • --quiet: do not show progress bars when downloading and extracting. This option is automatically disabled if output is empty (default: show progress bars)
  • --backend=TEXT: PDF library to use as backend (default: pymupdf)
  • --pages=TEXT: page ranges

Example:

# needs: pip install rows[pdf]
URL="http://www.imprensaoficial.rr.gov.br/app/_edicoes/2018/01/doe-20180131.pdf"
rows pdf-to-text $URL result.txt  # Save to file, show progress bars
rows pdf-to-text --quiet $URL result.txt  # Save to file, no progress bars
rows pdf-to-text --pages=1,2,3 $URL # Print first 3 pages to stdout
rows pdf-to-text --pages=1-3 $URL # Print first 3 pages to stdout (using ranges)

rows pgexport

Export a PostgreSQL table into a CSV file (compressed or not) in the most optimized way: using psql's COPY command. The supported compression formats are: gzip (.gz), lzma (.xz) and bzip2 (.bz2).

Usage: rows pgexport [OPTIONS] DATABASE_URI TABLE_NAME DESTINATION

Options:

  • --output-encoding=TEXT: encoding to be used on output file (default: utf-8)
  • --dialect=TEXT: CSV dialect to be used on output file (default: excel)

Example:

# needs: pip install rows[postgresql]
rows pgexport \
    postgres://postgres:postgres@127.0.0.1:42001/rows \
    my_table \
    my_table.csv.gz

rows pgimport

Import a CSV file (compressed or not) into a PostgreSQL table in the most optimized way: using psql's COPY command. The supported compression formats are: gzip (.gz), lzma (.xz) and bzip2 (.bz2).

Usage: rows pgimport [OPTIONS] SOURCE DATABASE_URI TABLE_NAME

Options:

  • --input-encoding=TEXT: Encoding of input CSV file (default: utf-8)
  • --no-create-table=BOOLEAN: should rows create the table or leave it to PostgreSQL? (default: false, ie: create the table)
  • --dialect=TEXT: CSV dialect to be used (default: will detect automatically)
  • --schemas=TEXT: schema filename to be used (default: will detect schema automatically) - this file must have the columns field_name and field_type (you can see and example by running rows schema)

Example:

# needs: pip install rows[postgresql]
rows pgimport \
    my_data.csv.xz \
    postgres://postgres:postgres@127.0.0.1:42001/rows \
    my_table

rows print

Print the selected source table

Usage: rows print [OPTIONS] SOURCE

Options:

  • --input-encoding=TEXT: Encoding of input tables (default: utf-8)
  • --output-encoding=TEXT: Encoding of output tables (default: utf-8)
  • --input-locale=TEXT: Locale of input tables. Used to parse integers, floats etc. (default: C)
  • --output-locale=TEXT: Locale of output tables. Used to parse integers, floats etc. (default: C)
  • --verify-ssl=BOOLEAN: Verify SSL certificate, if source is downloaded via HTTPS (default: true)
  • --order-by=TEXT: Order result by this field (default: same order as input data)
  • --fields=TEXT: A comma-separated list of fields to import (default: all fields)
  • --fields-exclude=TEXT: A comma-separated list of fields to exclude when exporting (default: none)
  • --frame-style=TEXT: frame style to "draw" the table; options: ascii, single, double, none (default: ascii)
  • --table-index=INTEGER: if source is HTML, specify the table index to extract (default: 0, ie: first <table> inside the HTML file)

Examples:

rows print \
    --fields=state,city \
    --order-by=city \
    data/brazilian-cities.csv

Note: download brazilian-cities.csv.

# needs: pip install rows[html]
rows print \
    --table-index=1 \  # extracts second table
    some-html-file.html

rows query

Yep, you can SQL-query any supported file format! Each of the source files will be a table inside an in-memory SQLite database, called table1, ..., tableN. If the --output is not specified, rows will print a table to the standard output.

Usage: rows query [OPTIONS] QUERY SOURCES...

Options:

  • --input-encoding=TEXT: Encoding of input tables (default: utf-8)
  • --output-encoding=TEXT: Encoding of output tables (default: utf-8)
  • --input-locale=TEXT: Locale of input tables. Used to parse integers, floats etc. (default: C)
  • --output-locale=TEXT: Locale of output tables. Used to parse integers, floats etc. (default: C)
  • --verify-ssl=BOOLEAN: Verify SSL certificate, if source is downloaded via HTTPS (default: true)
  • --samples=INTEGER: number of sample rows to detect schema (default: 5000)
  • --output=TEXT: filename to outputs - will use file extension to define which plugin to use (default: standard output, plugin text)
  • --frame-style=TEXT: frame style to "draw" the table; options: ascii, single, double, none (default: ascii)

Examples:

# needs: pip install rows[html]
rows query \
    "SELECT * FROM table1 WHERE inhabitants > 1000000" \
    data/brazilian-cities.csv \
    --output=data/result.html

Note: download brazilian-cities.csv.

# needs: pip install rows[pdf]
rows query \
    'SELECT * FROM table1 WHERE categoria = "Imprópria"' \
    http://balneabilidade.inema.ba.gov.br/index.php/relatoriodebalneabilidade/geraBoletim?idcampanha=36381 \
    --output=bathing-conditions.xls

In the last example rows will:

  • Download a file using HTTP
  • Identify its format (PDF)
  • Automatically extract a table based on objects' positions
  • Create an in-memory database with extracted data
  • Run the SQL query
  • Export the result to XLS

In just one command, automatically. How crazy is that?

rows schema

Identifies the table schema by inspecting data. The files generated by this command (txt format) can be used in --schema and --schemas options (a CSV version of these files can also be used).

Usage: rows schema [OPTIONS] SOURCE [OUTPUT]

Options:

  • --input-encoding=TEXT: Encoding of input tables (default: utf-8)
  • --input-locale=TEXT: Locale of input tables. Used to parse integers, floats etc. (default: C)
  • --verify-ssl=BOOLEAN: Verify SSL certificate, if source is downloaded via HTTPS (default: true)
  • -f TEXT, --format=TEXT: output format; options: txt, sql, django (default: txt)
  • --fields=TEXT: A comma-separated list of fields to import (default: all fields)
  • --fields-exclude=TEXT: A comma-separated list of fields to exclude when exporting (default: none)
  • --samples=INTEGER: number of sample rows to detect schema (default: 5000)

Example:

rows schema --samples=100 data/brazilian-cities.csv

Note: download brazilian-cities.csv.

Output:

+-------------+------------+
|  field_name | field_type |
+-------------+------------+
|       state |       text |
|        city |       text |
| inhabitants |    integer |
|        area |      float |
+-------------+------------+

rows sqlite2csv

Convert a SQLite table into a CSV file (compressed or not). The supported compression formats are: gzip (.gz), lzma (.xz) and bzip2 (.bz2).

Usage: rows sqlite2csv [OPTIONS] SOURCE TABLE_NAME OUTPUT

Options:

  • --batch-size=INTEGER: number of rows to batch insert into SQLite (default: 10000)
  • --dialect=TEXT: CSV dialect to be used on output file (default: excel)

Example:

rows sqlite2csv my_db.sqlite my_table my_table.csv.bz2

rows sum

Sum tables (append rows from one to the other) from source URIs and save into destination. The tables must have the same fields. This command is not optimized and its use is discouraged (rows query may be more effective).

Usage: rows sum [OPTIONS] SOURCES... DESTINATION

Options:

  • --input-encoding=TEXT: Encoding of input tables (default: utf-8)
  • --output-encoding=TEXT: Encoding of output tables (default: utf-8)
  • --input-locale=TEXT: Locale of input tables. Used to parse integers, floats etc. (default: C)
  • --output-locale=TEXT: Locale of output tables. Used to parse integers, floats etc. (default: C)
  • --verify-ssl=BOOLEAN: Verify SSL certificate, if source is downloaded via HTTPS (default: true)
  • --order-by=TEXT: Order result by this field (default: same order as input data)
  • --fields=TEXT: A comma-separated list of fields to import (default: all fields)
  • --fields-exclude=TEXT: A comma-separated list of fields to exclude when exporting (default: none)

Example:

rows sum \
    --fields=id,name,phone \
    people.csv \  # This file has `id`, `name` and other fields
    phones.csv \  # This file has `id`, `phone` and other fields
    contacts.csv  # Will have `id`, `name` and `phone` fields